MLQ Multifactor Leadership Survey (Bass, 1995)

1. I provide others with assistance in exchange for their efforts
2. I re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate
3. I fail to interfere until problems become serious
4. I focus attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions and deviations
5. I avoid getting involved when important issues arise
6. I talk about my most important values and beliefs
7. I am absent when needed
8. I seek differing perspectives when solving problems
9. I talk optimistically about the future
10. I instill pride in others for being associated with me
11. I discuss in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets
12. I wait for things to go wrong before taken action
13. I talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished
14. I specify the importance of having a strong sense of purpose
15. I spend time teaching and coaching
16. I make clear what one can expect to receive when performance
goals are achieved
17. I show that I am a firm believer in “If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it”
18. I go beyond self-interest for the good of the group
19. I treat others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group
20. I demonstrate that problems must become chronic before I take action
21. I act in ways that build others’ respect for me
22. I concentrate my full intention on dealing with mistakes, complaints,
and failures
23. I consider the moral and ethical consequences of decisions
24. I keep tracks of all mistakes
25. I display a sense of power and confidence
26. I articulate a compelling version of the future
27. I direct my attention toward failures to meet standards
28. I avoid making decisions
29. I consider an individual as having different needs, abilities,
and aspirations from others
30. I get others to look at problems from many different angles
31. I help others to develop their strengths
32. I suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments
33. I delay responding to urgent questions
34. I emphasize the importance of having a collective sense of mission
35. I express satisfaction when others meet expectations
36. I express confidence that goals will be achieved
37. I am effective in meeting others’ job-related needs
38. I use methods of leadership that are satisfying
39. I get others to do more than they expected to do
40. I am effective in representing others to higher authority
41. I work with others in a satisfactory way
42. I heighten others’ desire to succeed
43. I am effective in meeting organizational requirements
44. I increase others’ willingness to try harder
45. I lead a group that is effective
Source: Bass, B.M., and Avolio, B.J. (1995). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Mind Garden:Palo Alto CA.

39 Items with sub-dimensions

Idealized Attributes
I instill pride in others for being associated with me.
I act in ways that build others‟ respect for me.
I display a sense of power and confidence.
I go beyond self interest for the good of group.

Idealized Behaviours (IB)
I talk about my most important values and beliefs.
I specify the importance of having a strong sense of purpose.
I consider the moral and ethical consequences of decisions.
I emphasize the importance of having a collective sense of mission.

Inspirational Motivation
I talk optimistically about the future
I talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished.
I articulate a compelling vision of the future.
I express confidence that goals will be achieved.

Intellectual Stimulation
I re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate.
I seek differing perspectives when solving problems.
I get others to look at problems from many different angles.
I suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments.

Individualized Consideration
I spend time teaching and coaching.
I consider an individual as having different needs, abilities and aspirations from others.
I treat others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group.
I help others to develop their strengths.

Contingent Reward
I provide others with assistance in exchange for their efforts.
I discuss in specific terms, who is responsible for achieving performance targets?
I make clear what one can expect to receive when performance goals are achieved.
I express satisfaction when others meet expectations.

Management by Expectation-Active
I focus attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions, and deviations from standards.
I concentrate my full attention on dealing with mistakes, complaints, and failures
I keep track of all mistakes
I direct my attention toward failures to meet standards.

Management by Expectation-Passive
I fail to interfere until problems become serious.
I wait for things to go wrong before taking action.
I show that I am a firm believer in „if it isn‟t broke, don‟t fix it.‟
I demonstrate that problems must become chronic before I take action.

Effort
I get others to do more than they expected to do.
I heighten others‟ desire to succeed.
I increase others‟ willingness to try harder.
I lead a group that is effective.

Effectiveness
I am effective in meeting others‟ job related needs
I am effective in representing others to higher authority.
I am effective in meeting organizational requirements.

Source: Bukhari, S. J. A., Hassan, A., Bukhari, S. B. A., & Haseeb, S. (2014). Leadership Style and Employees Performance: Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan. Leadership, 2(2), 37-48.

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