Cultural Orientations Survey (Sharma, 2010)

Independence (IND)
I would rather depend on myself than others
My personal identity, independent of others, is important to me
I rely on myself most of the time, rarely on others
It is important that I do my job better than others

Interdependence (INT)
The well-being of my group members is important for me
I feel good when I cooperate with my group members
It is my duty to take care of my family members, whatever it takes
Family members should stick together, even if they do not agree

Power (POW)
I easily conform to the wishes of someone in a higher position than mine.
It is difficult for me to refuse a request if someone senior asks me
I tend to follow orders without asking any questions.
I find it hard to disagree with authority figures.

Social Inequality (IEQ)
A person’s social status reflects his or her place in the society
It is important for everyone to know their rightful place in the society
It is difficult to interact with people from different social status than mine
Unequal treatment for different people is an acceptable way of life for me

Risk Aversion (RSK)
I tend to avoid talking to strangers
I prefer a routine way of life to an unpredictable one full of change
I would not describe myself as a risk-taker
I do not like taking too many chances to avoid making a mistake

Ambiguity Intolerance (AMB)
I find it difficult to function without clear directions and instructions
I prefer specific instructions to broad guidelines
I tend to get anxious easily when I don’t know an outcome
I feel stressful when I cannot predict consequences

Masculinity (MAS)
Women are generally more caring than men
Men are generally physically stronger than women
Men are generally more ambitious than women
Women are generally more modest than men

Gender Equality (GEQ)
It is ok for men to be emotional sometimes
Men do not have to be the sole bread winner in a family
Men can be as caring as women
Women can be as ambitious as men

Tradition (TRD)
I am proud of my culture
Respect for tradition is important for me
I value a strong link to my past
Traditional values are important for me

Prudence (PRU)
I believe in planning for the long term
I work hard for success in the future
I am willing to give up today’s fun for success in the future
I do not give up easily even if I do not succeed on my first attempt

Consumer Ethnocentrism (CET)
We should not buy foreign products, because it hurts our economy
Only products that are unavailable in our country should be imported
Purchasing foreign products allows other countries to get rich off of us
It may cost me in the long run but I support my own country’s products

Consumer Innovativeness (CIN)
I am more interested in buying new than known products
I like to buy new and different products
I am usually among the first to try new products
I know more than others about latest new products

Source: Sharma, P. (2010). Measuring personal cultural orientations: scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(6), 787-806.

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