Structure

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1- For short abstracts, please follow the format here.

2- For extended summary (optional), please follow the APA format and the guidelines here.

3- For full  papers (optional), please ensure that your paper follows the APA format for both in-text and reference citations.  We recommend you follow the structure outlined below

RECOMMENDED STRUCTURE

Title

Abstract

Introduction

  • Background
  • Importance of the topic
  • Problem statement
  • Research purpose
  • Outline of the paper

Literature Review

  • Detailed background information about the topic 
  • Concepts/Keywords/definitions/constructs
  • Theories/models/processes/effects
  • Past studies /Past research 
  • List of hypotheses and/or research questions

Methodology 

  • Sample
  • Data Collection
  • Sampling method choice
  • Measurement tools

Findings

  • Statistical analyses/ analysis procedures/steps/findings
  • Hypotheses rejected or accepted
  • Research questions answered or unanswered
  • Additional findings other than the hypotheses and questions

Conclusions 

  • Restate the purpose
  • Summarize the procedure
  • List the major findings/hypotheses
  • Elaborate the findings
  • Mention how the findings will be useful

Limitations and Future Studies

  • Limitations
  • Future studies

References

Appendixes

EXPLANATIONS

Title

  • Pattern 1- Question. List your research question as your research title. Example: Does Facebook use really cause narcissism?
  • Pattern 2 – Summary. Summarize the study in 1 sentence. Example: Analysis of the relationship between Facebook use and narcissism.
  • Pattern 3 – Double tittle with a colon. Use 2 separate tittles with a colon. Facebook and Narcissism: An analysis of Heavy Facebook users.
  • Pattern 4 – Attention grabbing and creative titles that mostly use the active voice. Examples: Don’t call me a narcissist: A closer look into heavy Facebook users. Here you go Mr. Perfect: Segmenting Facebook users.

Abstract

Abstract is a a paragraph-long summary of your paper or your conclusions section

  • Objective (1 sentence)
  • Research process (1 sentence)
  • 2 most important findings (1 or 2 sentences)
  • Conclusion (1 sentence)
  • Example: This study was conducted to close the literature gap and promote cross-cultural understandings among social media users (OBJECTIVE). A content analysis was conducted on 4,000 tweets posted by 200 college students in Japan and the USA (METHOD). The results showed that Japanese college students post more self-related messages and ask fewer questions compared to American college students. It was also found that tweets that refer to TV are more common in Japan, whereas sports and news tweets stand out in the USA (FINDINGS). The evidence from this study suggests that there is a subtle and complicated relationship between culture and Twitter use (CONCLUSION).

Introduction

Background: (what we already know)

  • Interest in …. has been growing in recent years
  • Recently it was found that …….
  • …. has been increasingly used by various …
  • There is a growing body of evidence supporting …..’s
  • The New York Times reports that …
  • Currently/nowadays/at the time of this writing there are …
  • A number of studies looked at the relationship between…
  • The question of … caused much debate in the discipline

Importance:(Why the topic is important)

  • A number of studies suggest that ….. is one of the most important aspects of …
  • ….remains one of the most hotly debated topics in the area of
  • Understanding… is crucial/pivotal/vital/critical/ in order to..
  • Recent developments, particularly…. makes this topic…
  • Having this information will be very advantageous/valuable/useful for … because …
  • This is the first study/one of the first studies that addresses…

Problem statement (What we don’t know that we need to know / Current & Potential Problems)

  • Literature Gap
  • To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies available in the area of….
  • So far only few studies investigated ….
  • Previous studies failed to address…
  • A limited body of literature addressed the needs of…
  • Too little attention has been paid to
  • Need for timely information
  • Recently …. mentioned that there are more studies needed in the area of…
  • Most of what we know about … is from the 60’s.
  • Conflicting findings in the literature
  • There are conflicting findings in the literature as..
  • The findings are not consistent…
  • Public interest & a recent problem (e.g. security breach, international crisis, increasing health issues, increasing rate/cost of something, business failures, etc.)
  • Currently most social media users face the problem of…
  • Many people suffer from Internet addiction and this is…
  • After the recent economic recession, companies need a better way to utilize their resources by ….
  • Nowadays many students drop out because…
  • Policy makers may face the issue of … everyday
  • Not having this information causes inefficiency, ineffectiveness, a challenge, a dilemma
  • Majority of marketers report issues with their ROI on …
  • Most people are uneducated in the area of…
  • In this situation, people may have the dilemma of ….
  • Not knowing/understanding/assessing/investigating … may be detrimental/disadvantageous… or may cause
  • During this critical time/the transition period, not having this information causes time/money/waste of resources/misunderstanding/other issues especially…
  • A blurred concept, something difficult to understand, something has not been explained well
  • ….Necessary for better understanding of
  • ….Is impossible without further understanding of…
  • There has been an inconclusive debate on…
  • Limited research exists to draw any firm conclusions regarding
  • something difficult to predict
  • Currently it is difficult to predict…

Objective (To solve the problem listed above)

  • The purpose/aim/goal/objective of this study is…
  • This paper/study/article/research aims to…
  • This study is an attempt to …
  • A survey/experiment/literature review was conducted to…
  • We hope to identify/clarify/pinpoint …. after analyzing..
  • Author would like to close the literature gap and contribute to the body of literature by …
  • The findings will help/assist/benefit/support …
  • The results of this study will be of particular interest to…
  • Practitioners/policy makers/managers/institutions may benefit from the findings of this study by…
  • Scholars/researchers/field workers/students can better understand …
  • The findings will add significantly to our understanding of…
  • Having this information is likely to improve/ amend society/social life/the current business environment/etc.

Literature review

Detailed background information about the topic (facts & figures, history, people, media coverage, trends, books on the topic, etc.)

  • Emmanuel Kant was one of the first scholars to point out
  • Japan’s Westernization started when Commodore Perry…
  • In his book on modern dance … states that
  • According to Aristotle/Karl Marx/Charles Darwin/Adam Smith …. (try to find the earliest scholar/idea related to your topic)
  • The government figures show that…
  • The use of … has been growing rapidly as illustrated in..

Psychological, sociological, demographic, cultural, biological (neural), economical, philosophical and critical approaches to your topic (if applicable)

  • Understanding “flow” has certain sociological implications
  • Young males reportedly experience flow more frequently and
  • The experience of flow has been known to vary culture to culture
  • Recent neurobiological findings suggest that flow is related to
  • The concept of flow can be better understood when contrasted with Descartes’ writings on consciousness.
  • Critics argue that there is no such stage like “flow” because…

Concepts/Keywords/definitions/constructs (if applicable)

  • According to Merriam Webster, flow is defined …
  • In his seminal book on creativity, Csikszentmihalyi refers to flow as…
  • Rosenberg was the first psychologist to coin the term flow which means…
  • Several authors argued that flow is likely to be caused by …
  • A comprehensive review of flow studies was conducted by .. who stated…

Theoretical Framework: Theories/models/processes/effects (if applicable)

  • According to flow theory…
  • The basic premises/prepositions/assumptions of flow theory are
  • The elaboration likelihood model suggests/posits/postulates that
  • Proponents of game theory suggest that …

Past studies similar to your study

  • Past research (direct)
  • There is a rapidly growing literature on flow theory. … found that
  • A significant number of flow studies contributed to the literature so far. … Indicated that
  • Similarly/along the same lines/by the same token, … observed that …
  • Past research (Indirect)
  • Cognition scholars also foraged/delved into the area of playing games and flow.
  • Along with flow, researchers identified 7 additional cognitive stages:
  • Further research on… has supplied ample evidence that…
  • Contrary to the past findings, recently it was discovered that
  • On the other hand, there have been conflicting views regarding the stages of flow.

Hypotheses and/or Questions

  • Based on a review of both empirical and conceptual literature, we pose the following research questions/hypothesize that
  • In view of the aforementioned discussion of the literature, we pose the following questions/hypothesize that
  • Based on both the existing literature and the theoretical background, we posethe following hypotheses regarding
  • On these grounds we argue that

Methodology(Data collection process)

Sample: What, Who, Why

  • The sample consisted of (sample size, gender, avg. age, socioeconomic info, etc).…. This particular group of … selected because they are highly representative of…
  • A total of/A sample of …. participated/were recruited/were included in the study

Data Collection: What, When, Where, Who, How

  • The participants were contacted using convenience sampling and given the option of completing the web-based questionnaire in exchange for class credit. Most of the participants took this survey as part of their classes taught by the principal investigator at a computer lab, so the response rate was 100%.
  • The data collection took place in May of 2013, and students from various demographics (e.g., major, gender, year at the school, etc.) participated in the study.

Sampling method choice, sample choice, Analysis method choice: What, How, Why, Stages of Data collection

  • As a first step/Prior to data collection/During the first phase..
  • After the respondents completed…/ the sample items were…
  • Finally/In the third stage/ Followed by the procedure…
  • This particular sample/sampling method was chosen because
  • The focus group method was adopted/preferred/chosen to ensure produce insights into/gain in-depth understanding/facilitate rapid data collection.
  • This study adopted the … method because (past study/author) stated that the most appropriate way to measure … …………………………………………………………

Measurement tools, stimuli, procedure: What, How, Why

  • The survey questionnaire consisted of 20 multiple-choice items that were adopted from (author/study).

Findings

Findings/Statistical analyses/ analysis procedures/steps</>

  • To answer the first research question/hypothesis, ….
  • As a first step of data analysis, the principal investigator …
  • The preliminary analysis has yielded results that …
  • Respondents/participants/subjects who … reported/stated/indicated/answered that…
  • Regarding question 1/ in response to question 1/ When asked about … most respondents/subjects/participants reported/stated/indicated that …
  • As shown in/presented in/can be seen in Table 1/Figure 1/Graph 1 …
  • The figure/table/graph/chart below/above illustrates/demonstrates/shows … the summary/characteristics/distribution of…
  • A content analysis/an independent t-test/a simple linear regression was performed/conducted to …
  • A number of themes/categories/findings/ emerged from the analysis…

Elaborate on findings/ Mention findings other than hypotheses and research questions

  • Surprisingly/unexpectedly/interestingly/contrary to past findings, the analysis has also yielded results that …
  • Further evidence supporting…/Further analysis of … / Furthermore, additional analysis has indicated …
  • In addition to the findings above, the analysis/data/survey results/participants indicated that …
  • Some further/additional/numerical analysis also implicated that…

Hypotheses rejected or accepted

  • Thus, therefore, in light of these findings Hypothesis 1 accepted: subjects who have…
  • No significant differences were found between… thus…

Research questions answered or unanswered

  • These findings/results relate to/answer/address/present answers to the first research question…
  • These findings/results raise/pose another research question…

Conclusions

Restate the purpose

  • This study was conducted to address/draw upon …
  • The objective of the current study was …
  • This study provides an extensive overview of…
  • This study was inspired by …

Summarise the procedure

  • To understand the effects of … this study/author/we/the principal investigator surveyed…
  • A cross-sectional study was performed where…
  • The present study assessed the claims that …

List major findings/answers to research questions/hypotheses

  • The results implied/indicated/showed/suggested that …
  • This study/paper/research has found/shown that
  • This study/paper/research/work failed to disclose/provide any significant relationship between
  • The following conclusions can be drawn/made/obtained/inferred based on …

Elaborate on each major finding

  • …. stood out as a major …
  • Similar to/contrary to past findings the results of the present study …
  • In terms of/when it comes to …
  • The in-depth analysis/a closer look at the data also suggested that…
  • The most important/significant/noteworthy finding, contribution to the literature …
  • Surprisingly/unexpectly/apart from … we discovered…

Explain the results/Provide precautions

  • These differences/results/abnormalities may be tied to/due to/be regarded as/may explain..
  • As a result of/due to the fact that/driven by/on the basis of … we can speculate/postulate/assume
  • It is quite probable that … contributed to the positive effect of
  • These results should be taken with a pinch of salt/one should be careful to generalize..
  • On the other hand, it would be ill-advised to ..,

Talk about implications

  • Overall, findings of this study lent/provided/thus support to/for the view/argument/notion that
  • In sum/when put together/to summarize the results confirmed/provided confirmatory evidence/lent support to/offered evidence/failed to detect …
  • The results have significant implications for
  • On these grounds, one can presume/expect/argue that

Mention how the findings will be useful

  • This paper/study/research has added to the growing body of literature/evidence suggesting
  • (Go back to your problem statement section and cite them again)… these results can be utilized by marketing practitioners in a way that…

Limitations/Future Studies

Shortcomings of the study

  • The present study has a number of shortcomings.
  • The sample size of this study is too small to make any generalizations about …
  • The sample consisted of only …
  • The scope of the study was only limited to
  • This study failed to control
  • Some of the weaknesses of the current study can be listed as

Mention Potential future studies based on the limitations

  • future studies with larger samples and complex study designs are needed to confirm
  • Future studies must address/control for …
  • More research is needed …
  • The topic of … can be better understood when … incorporated
  • It would be interesting/desirable to investigate (different aspects (cross-cultural, longitudinal, cross-gender/ etc.)
  • The findings should be replicated in larger samples…

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